1. Introduction: Principal features of development, origin of sexual reproduction,
developmental patterns; Spermatogenesis; Oogenesis.
2.Fertilization: Recognition of sperm and egg, fusion of gametes, activation of egg
metabolism, rearrangement of egg cytoplasm.
3. Cleavage: Patterns of embryonic cleavage, mechanism of cleavage.
4. Gastrulation: Fate maps, gastrulation in sea urchin, amphibians, birds and
5. Early Vertebrate Development: Neurulation, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
(Emphasis on the germ layers only)
6. Cellular Basis of Morphogenesis: Differential cell affinity, cell adhesion
7. Mechanism of Cellular Differentiation: RNA processing, translational regulation
of developmental process, cell-fate by progressive determinants, autonomous cell
specification by cytoplasmic determinants, establishment of body axes and
mechanism of teratogenesis; Secondary Induction.
8. Organogenesis: A brief account; Origin and Migration of Germ Cells in
Vertebrates (One representative organ from each germ layer).
9. Factors controlling Growth and Oncogenesis.
10. Hormones as Mediators of Development; Regeneration in Vertebrates.
1. Developmental Biology. Gilbert, S. F., 2000. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
2. An Introduction to Embryology.Balinsky, B. I., 1985. W.B.Saunders and Co.
3. Development Biology. Saunders, J. W. 1982. McMillan and Co.
4. Introduction to Embryonic Development. Oppenheimer, S.S., 1984. Allen and
5. Modern Embryology. Bodemer, C. W., 1968. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
6. Mechanism of Development. Ham,R. G.and Veomett, M. J., 1980. C.V. Mosby Co.
7. Development. Berril, N. J. and Karp, G., 1978. McGraw Hill.
1. Study of gametes structure in some representative cases, i.e., fowl and mammal.
2. Study of cleavage and subsequent development from prepared slides and/or whole mounts in various animals i.e., frog, chick etc.
3. Study of fertilization, early development of frog through models/slides.
4. Preparation and study of serial sections of mice or chick embryos.
5. Application of microsurgical techniques on chick embryos in vitro.
6. Preparation and staining of histological slides.
Gastrulation in birds
Gastrulation in sea urchin
Book Title : Developmental Biology
Author : Gilbert, S. F.
Edition : 10th
Publisher : Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 2